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Brief "cheat sheet" on APA

Page history last edited by Jon Brammer 12 years, 4 months ago

For a good example of an APA paper, you can go here:



One of the main purposes behind the practice of including in-text citations and reference pages is to show a reader of your work that you have some depth of knowledge about a particular subject area.  For example, if you were in a conversation with an acquaintance, and he or she started expressing opinions about Asian food, would you believe their views more or less if they told you they had never eaten at a Chinese restaurant? 


The same is true in writing.  If you express an opinion or write a response to a reading, your instructor needs to know that you have gone through the text, digested the material, and are coming up with specific comments on specific ideas in a text.  In text citation and a reference page help you to do that.  The examples below are designed to assist you in integrating ideas from your readings into your writing and citing them appropriately.  A few examples of on-line reference page entries are included as well.



You will also be given the chance to practice documentation skills using an example on the second page.



Example 1- In text citation- basic quotation

Hart (1996) wrote that some primatologists "wondered if apes had learned Language, with a capital L" (p. 109).



Example 2- In text citation- basic summary or paraphrase

According to Hart (1996), researchers took Terrace's conclusions seriously, and funding for language experiments soon declined (p. 110).  



Example 3- In text citation- work with three to five authors

The chimpanzee Nim was raised by researchers who trained him in American Sign Language by molding and guiding his hands (Terrace, Petitto, Sanders, & Bever, 1979, p. 891).



Example 4- In text citation- work with six or more authors

The ape language experiments are shedding light on the language development of very young children and children with linguistic handicaps (Savage-Rumbaugh et al., 1993).



Example 5- In text citation- organization as an author

According to the Language Research Center (2000), linguistic research with apes has led to new methods of treating humans with learning disabilities such as autism and dyslexia.



Example 6- References page- basic book format

Bernstein, N. (2001). The lost children of Wilder: The epic struggle to change foster care. New York: Pantheon.



Example 7- References page- basic magazine format

Raloff, J. (2001, May 12). Lead therapy won't help most kids. Science News, 159, 292.



Example 8- References page- basic journal format- paginated by issue

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.



Example 9- References page- basic journal format- paginated by volume

Morawski, J. (2000). Social psychology a century ago. American Psychologist, 55, 427-431.



Example 10- References page- online journal with no print version 

Ashe, D. D., & McCutcheon, L. E. (2001, May 4). Shyness, loneliness, and attitude toward celebrities.

Current Research in Social Psychology, 6(9). Retrieved July 3, 2001, from http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.6.9.htm



Example 11- References page- online posting

Eaton, S. (2001, June 12). Online transactions [Msg 2] Message posted to news://sci.psychology.psychotherapy.moderated



References Practice Writing Task

In the space below, you will find a quotation talking about a particular topic. All the necessary information will be included for you to write a reference page entry in the appropriate format.


The text below was taken from the first paragraph of an article written by Robert J. Schinke and Wendy C. Jerome from the sports psychology program at Laurentian University in December of 2002.  It was published in an online only journal called Athletic Insight.  The web site can be found at http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol4Iss3/ResilienceIntervention.htm.  The article appears in the current issue (#3) in the 4th volume of the publication.  For the purposes of this exercise, imagine you accessed this information today.



Over the past decade, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have developed a resilience training protocol designed to improve the output of both professional executives and under-graduate students in adverse circumstances. A parallel program was also designed to enhance the self-esteem of children. Longitudinal studies using these programs suggest that not only can human resilience be taught, but their benefit is a fostering of achievement.


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